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1- Faculty of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran , ali.poursanati@gmail.com
2- Faculty of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran
Abstract:   (190 Views)
Background & Objectives: The Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is more prevalent in some regions, including Iran. This comprehensive literature review explores the symptoms and risk factors associated with HTLV-1 infection.
Materials & Methods: A narrative review used PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. Search terms included HTLV-1, neurological disorders, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiology for articles published between 2000 and 2023. In total, 130 articles were selected for this manuscript.
Results: The retrovirus HTLV-1 infects human CD4+ T cells. Breastfeeding, unsafe sexual contact, and contaminated blood products are its main transmission routes. HTLV-1 is endemic in Iran, Japan, the Caribbean, South America, and Africa. While many infected people don't show symptoms, the virus can cause HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and peripheral neuropathy. Tax viral proteins cause nervous system inflammation and HAM/TSP. MRI can show spinal cord shrinkage and white matter lesions in affected patients. Immunodeficiency conditions, blood transfusions, and risky sexual behavior increase infection risk. Many neurological symptoms start with sensory-motor impairments. The main symptoms are limb weakness, bladder/bowel dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. PCR, imaging, and CSF analysis are used to diagnose. Anti-inflammatory drugs, pain management, physiotherapy, and disease monitoring are possible treatments.
Conclusion: It is crucial to monitor the health of individuals who test positive for HTLV-1 to facilitate diagnosis and intervention. By understanding the pathogenesis and epidemiology of HTLV-1, we can develop strategies and targeted treatments for associated disorders like HAM/TSP. International collaboration is essential in addressing health concerns related to HTLV-1 infection.

 
     
Type of Study: Review | Subject: Neurology
Received: 2023/09/10 | Accepted: 2024/06/8

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons — Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)